21CP Solutions

21CP is the preeminent team of forward-thinking thought leaders on policing.




Ronald L. Davis

Ronald L. Davis was appointed by United States Attorney General Eric Holder in November 2013 as the Director of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). The COPS Office is responsible for advancing community policing nationwide and supporting the community policing activities of state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies.

In December 2014, President Obama appointed Director Davis to serve as the Executive Director of the newly created President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. President Barack Obama charged Director Davis and the Task Force with developing concrete recommendations to improve community trust in the police while enhancing public safety.

Prior to serving as COPS Director, Mr. Davis had a distinguished career in law enforcement serving 8 years as Chief of Police of East Palo Alto (CA) and 20 years with the Oakland (CA) Police Department. Davis was recognized for his innovative community policing efforts and for working collaboratively with the community to dramatically reduce crime and violence in a city once named as the murder capital of the United States.

Mr. Davis served on two federal monitoring teams with oversight of police-reform consent decrees between the DOJ and the Washington, D.C., and Detroit Police Departments.  He is the co-author of the Harvard University and National Institute of Justice publications Race and Policing: An Agenda for Action, and Exploring the Role of the Police in Prisoner Reentry. He is co-author of the DOJ publication How to Correctly Collect and Analyze Racial Profiling Data: Your Reputation Depends on It and a contributing author to several Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) publications.  Mr. Davis holds a Bachelor’s degree from Southern Illinois University and has completed the Senior Executives in State and Local Government Program at Harvard University Kennedy School of Government.

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Charles H. Ramsey

Charles H. Ramsey led the fourth largest police department in the nation with 6500 sworn and 8 hundred civilian members of the Philadelphia Police Department before he retired from his post on December 31st, 2015. Commissioner Ramsey brings nearly fifty years of law enforcement expertise to 21CP Solutions. He served as Washington, D.C. Police Chief and was a Deputy Superintendent in the Chicago Police Department where he implemented the nationally acclaimed model of community policing called the Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy.

Former Commissioner Ramsey has long been at the forefront of developing innovative policing strategies, evidence-based initiatives, organizational accountability and neighborhood based programs. Working with the Anti-Defamation League and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, he led the creation of Law Enforcement & Society: Lessons from the Holocaust.

He is a past President of the Police Executive Research Forum, the Major Cities Chiefs Association, and served on the International Association of Chiefs of Police Executive Committee. In January of 2015, President Barrack Obama called on Commissioner Ramsey to co-chair the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing.

He has received numerous awards including the John M. Penrith Leadership Award from the FBI National Executive Institute, Leadership awards from the Police Executive Research Forum and the Major Cities Chiefs Association, and the Innovations in American Government Award from Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government.

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Kathleen O'Toole

Kathleen O’Toole is a career police leader and lawyer who has earned an international reputation for her principled leadership and reform strategies.  From 2014 through 2017, she was the Chief of Police of the Seattle Police Department, successfully navigating it to a finding of full and effective compliance with a federal consent decree.

In 2012, Ms. O’Toole completed a six-year term as Chief Inspector of the Gardia Síochána Inspectorate, an oversight body responsible for bringing reform, best practice and accountability to the 17,000 member Irish national police service.

Prior to serving in Ireland, Ms. O’Toole rose through the ranks of local and state policing in the United States. During her police career, she was assigned to numerous patrol, investigative, undercover, supervisory and management positions. She served as Superintendent (Chief) of the Metropolitan District Commission Police and Lieutenant Colonel overseeing Special Operations in the Massachusetts State Police. She was later appointed Massachusetts Secretary of Public Safety (1994) and Boston Police Commissioner (2004).  She was the first woman appointed to all of these senior positions.  O'Toole is a graduate of Boston College and the New England School of Law.

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Sean M. Smoot

Mr. Smoot serves as Director and Chief Counsel for the Police Benevolent & Protective Association of Illinois (“PB&PA”) and the Police Benevolent Labor Committee (“PBLC”). In those capacities he is responsible for administering the provision of legal services for over 7,500 legal defense plan participants.

Mr. Smoot also serves as Area Vice President of the National Association of Police Organizations (“NAPO”), a national law enforcement advocacy group representing over 250,000 police officers. He has served on the Advisory Committee for the National Law Enforcement Officers’ Rights Center in Washington, D.C. since 1996. He is a member of the Advisory Committee at the Chicago-Kent College of Law’s Annual Illinois Public Sector Labor Relations Law Program. He also serves on the Use of Force Advisory Committee, the Police Pursuit Advisory Committee, the Racial Profiling Advisory Committee, and the Task Force on Police Integrity for the Illinois Law Enforcement Training and Standards Board. Smoot speaks regularly at state, national, and international forums regarding community policing, public safety, and public employee labor issues. A veteran, Smoot has also been a featured speaker at the National Academy of Arbitrators and several CLE programs regarding the Rights of Military Employees.

Mr. Smoot was selected for inclusion in Super Lawyers & Rising Stars 2008 & 2009 and has been recognized as one of the “Top Employment & Labor Attorneys in Illinois” by the publishers of Chicago magazine. He served as a police and public safety policy advisor to the Obama-Biden Presidential Transition Team. Mr. Smoot was a Member of the Executive Session on Policing and Public Safety at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University 2008-2014. He also holds several Certificates in Police Union Leadership from the Harvard Law School.

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Nola Joyce

Nola Joyce is the former Deputy Commissioner and Chief Administrative Officer for the Philadelphia Police Department. Deputy Commissioner Joyce has 25 years of public sector experience. She has previously been the Chief Administrative Officer for the Metropolitan Police Department in Washington, D.C. and the Deputy Director of Research and Development for the Chicago Police Department, in addition to her current seven years with the Philadelphia Police Department. Ms. Joyce serves in a number of positions focused on improving the quality of policing.

Ms. Joyce is a co-founder and faculty member of the Major Cities Chiefs’ Executive Police Leadership Institute. She was appointed to the National Academy of Science’s Panel on Modernizing the Nation’s Crime Statistics.  She is also an advisor to the American Law Institute’s Principles of the Law, Police Investigations Project.  Ms. Joyce is an Executive Fellow with the Police Foundation, a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Research Advisory Council and the Police Executive Research Forum’s Research Council.  She received the Gary P. Hayes award from the Police Executive Research Forum and the IACP/Sprint Award for Excellence in Law Enforcement Research. She has worked with the Office for the Security and Co-operation in Europe on gender issues in the security sector and providing support for the implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR 1325).

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Roberto Villaseñor

Roberto Villaseñor served with the Tucson Police Department for over 35 years, and served from May 2009 until his retirement in December 2015 as the Chief of the Department. He served in every division and bureau of the Department, to include Patrol, Investigations, Internal Affairs, Bike Patrol, PIO, Hostage Negotiations, Community Policing, Administration and Communications. As an Assistant Chief for 9 years, he commanded all four bureaus of the Department, and served as the Union Liaison involved in discipline grievances and labor negotiations. His career history and assignments have given him a thorough understanding of all facets of policing and police management.

Villaseñor served on several state and national boards and committees, to include the Arizona HIDTA (Chairman), The Arizona Association of Chiefs of Police (President), the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) Executive Board, the FBI CJIS/UCR Working Group, and currently sits on the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Ethics and Integrity Advisory Panel. In 2014 Chief Villaseñor was appointed by President Obama to the President’s National Task Force on 21st Century Policing, and in 2015 was appointed by Arizona Governor Doug Ducey to the Arizona Criminal Justice Council.

Chief Villaseñor has a B.S. degree from Park University and a M.Ed. from Northern Arizona University. He attended the PERF Senior Management Institute for Police (SMIP), University of California at Long Beach Leadership Development Series, the FBI National Academy, and the FBI National Executives Institute (NEI). Throughout his career, in addition to numerous Commendations and Letters of Appreciation, he received the Department’s Medal of Distinguished Service, three Medals of Merit, and was Officer of the Year for 1996. In 2015 The Tucson Branch of the NAACP presented him an award for “Pursuing Liberty in the Face of Injustice”, and the Tucson Hispanic Chamber named him as the 2015 Arizona Public Servant of the Year.

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Matthew Barge

Matthew Barge is the federal court-appointed monitor overseeing a federal consent decree in Cleveland, leading a team of national experts and local community members.  Mr. Barge is also currently serving as lead police practices expert to a retired magistrate judge overseeing an agreement between the City of Chicago and American Civil Liberties Union addressing issues related to "stop and frisk."  He is a subject matter expert on the federal monitoring team overseeing a federal consent decree in Baltimore.  He is also a Senior Consultant with the Policing Project at N.Y.U. School of Law.

Mr. Barge has previously supervised the court-appointed monitoring team overseeing a federal consent decree in Seattle as the Team's Deputy Monitor. Across more than 13 years of work with law enforcement, he has also engaged in significant assessment projects for cities, including Mesa, Arizona; Los Angeles and Pasadena, California; Denver, Colorado; Farmington, New Mexico; Walkill, New York; and Portland, Oregon. He has conducted exhaustive reviews of high-profile use of force incidents for the University of California, Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Unified School District and made recommendations for improving policy and procedure in each instance.

A lawyer, Mr. Barge previously worked as a litigator specializing in complex, multi-district litigation at the law firms of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom and Quinn, Emanuel, Urquhart & Sullivan in New York City. He is frequently sought as an expert on police issues by the media, universities and law schools, and government entities.  He is a graduate of N.Y.U. School of Law and Georgetown University.

Senior Advisors

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Darrel W. Stephens

Darrel Stephens is widely recognized as being one of the most innovative police chiefs in modern American policing, and he served over 40 years as a police officer and at the executive level. He is most recently retired as the Chief of Police for the Charlotte Mecklenburg Police Department, where he served from 1999 to 2008. Prior to his service in Charlotte-Mecklenburg, he served as Chief of Police and City Administrator for the City of St. Petersburg, Florida (1992 – 1999), Executive Director of the Police Executive Research Forum (1986 – 1992), Chief of Police for Newport News, Virginia (1983- 1986), Chief of Police for Largo, Florida (1979 – 1983), Assistant Chief of Police for Lawrence Kansas (1976 – 1979) and rose through the ranks from officer to commander in the Kansas City, Missouri Police Department from 1968 to 1976.

Perhaps best known for advancing innovative approaches to policing, Stephens has earned a national reputation as a leader in law enforcement. The Major Cities Chiefs Association elected Stephens vice- president in 2005 and president in 2007. He was also awarded the ACJS O.W. Wilson Award (1996) and the prestigious Police Executive Research Forum’s Leadership Award (2005). He was elected as a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and has served on both the Harvard University Executive Session for Policing, Domestic Terrorism, and Community Policing as well as a graduate of the Senior State and Local Government Executives program. He holds an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from Central Missouri State University, where he also earned a M.S. in Public Services Administration (1977). Chief Stephens is now with a member of the Faculty of the Public Safety Leadership Program at Johns Hopkins University in the School of Education.

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Hassan Aden

Chief Aden is the former Chief of Police of the Greenville Police Department in Greenville, North Carolina. Until late 2015, he was the Director of the Research and Programs Directorate of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), where he directly oversaw the day-to-day management of operational programs and research projects aimed at advancing professional police services. He worked for 26 years at the Alexandria Police Department in Alexandria, Virginia, rising to the rank of Deputy Chief there.

Chief Aden is a former commissioner of the governing board of CALEA and has served as a Senior Executive Fellow at the Police Foundation. He is currently a member of the Cleveland Police Monitoring Team, which oversees implementation of a federal consent decree, and has served as an expert for the team monitoring a similar consent decree in Seattle. Among other academic credentials, he holds a Masters of Public Administration from American University in Washington, DC.

James E. Copple

James E. Copple has a long and distinguished career in youth work, education, substance abuse, and crime and violence prevention. A nationally recognized speaker and writer in this field, Mr. Copple has served as the Founding President of Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA), Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the National Crime Prevention Council in Washington, D.C., President of the International Institute for Alcohol Awareness, and Senior Policy Analyst for the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. He is a Founding Partner of Strategic Applications International, LLC and President of Servant Forge, an international non- profit focused on leadership development in the non- profit and government sector.

In 2015, Copple facilitated President Obama’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing and was the principal writer for the Implementation Guide for the Department of Justice. Over the past ten years, Mr. Copple facilitated 22 statewide summits on Methamphetamine Prevention and Enforcement, numerous summits on violence prevention, gun prevention, and comprehensive planning on alcohol prevention among underage youth. He has delivered major addresses in every state of the union and spoken in twenty-two different nations, including a major facilitation between Israel and the Palestinian Authority on youth substance abuse and violence prevention at the request of the State Department.

Associate Consultants

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Cedric L. Alexander

Cedric L. Alexander is the Deputy Chief Operating Officer for Public Safety in DeKalb County, Georgia, a position he has held since late 2013.  Dr. Alexander is also the National President of the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives.  In 2013, he served as Chief of Police for the DeKalb County Police Department.  Prior to this, Dr. Alexander served as Federal Security Director for the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport from 2007 to 2013, and from 2006 to 2007, he was Deputy Commissioner of the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services.  From 2005 to 2006, Dr. Alexander was Chief of the Rochester Police Department (RPD) in Rochester, New York, where he previously served as Deputy Chief of Police from 2002 to 2005.  Before joining RPD, Dr. Alexander was a faculty member in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Rochester Medical Center from 1998 to 2002.  He began his career as a Deputy Sheriff in Florida from 1977 to 1981, before joining the Miami-Dade Police Department, where he was as an Officer and Detective from 1981 to 1992. He received a B.A. and M.S. from St. Thomas University in Miami, Florida, and a Psy.D. from Wright State University.

Kevin J. Bethel

Kevin J. Bethel is a retired Deputy Police Commissioner in the Philadelphia Police Department, the 4th largest police department in the nation with over 6,600 sworn personnel. Prior to his retirement in January 2016, Bethel commanded Patrol Operation’s for the entire city. This appointment included oversight of the 21 Patrol Districts, Neighborhood Services Unit, Philadelphia School District Police and Community Relations Unit. Kevin has done extensive work in the Juvenile Justice Field; most recently developed a School Diversion Program within the Philadelphia School System. The program diverts first time, low-level juvenile offenders by utilizing programs within the Department of Human Services. In its first year, the program reduced the number of school arrests by 54 percent. He currently serves on the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency Disproportionate Minority Contact Subcommittee and is a former member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Law and Justice Committee. He is also a member of the Youth Violence Collaborative and Youth Engagement for the National League of Cities Collaboration, the Philadelphia Juvenile Detention Alternative Initiative, a faculty member for the International Association of Chiefs of Police Juvenile Justice Leadership Institute, and a regular lecturer, on school diversion and racial and ethnic disparities at Georgetown University.

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Shelly Camden

Michelle (Shelly) Camden is the Deputy Director of Northwestern University’s Center for Public Safety since April 2011. She is responsible for oversight of 4 divisions including Management Training, Crash Investigation, Police Training and Transportation Engineering. Ms. Camden also provides oversight for the Traffic Safety School. She has developed and delivered curriculum for domestic and international programs, including on ground and online deliveries.

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Terry Gainer

Terry Gainer served 47 years in law enforcement at the federal, state and local levels. He has nearly 50 years of national and international law enforcement experience. He began his career in law enforcement with the Chicago Police Department in 1968, spending years as a homicide detective and after law school, became that agency's Chief Legal Officer. In 1998, he was named Executive Assistant Chief of the Metropolitan Police in Washington, D.C., responsible for all operations and from 2002 to 2006, he became Chief of the U.S. Capitol Police. Four years later, he was appointed as the 38th U.S. Senate Sergeant-At-Arms, the Senate's chief law enforcement and administrative officer. He has been a Director of Mace Security International Inc. since July 14, 2015.

He previously served as a Director of the Illinois State Police from 1991 to 1998. He began his law enforcement career as a police officer in the Chicago Police Department, where he rose through the ranks to homicide detective and then sergeant before, ultimately, being appointed chief legal counsel for the department. After 20 years with the Chicago Police Department, he served as the director of the Illinois State Police from 1991 to 1998. A native of Chicago, he is a decorated veteran who served in Vietnam and retired as a Captain in the United States Navy Reserve. He is the past commissioner of the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA), a board member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and member of the Police Executive Research Forum. Hon. Gainer received his Bachelor’s degree in Sociology from Saint Benedict’s College, a Master of Science and a Juris Doctor degree from DePaul University.

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Timothy J. Longo

Chief Longo is a 25-year veteran of law enforcement and is nationally recognized in the area of police ethics and professional standards. He holds a law degree from the University of Baltimore and was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1993. Longo serves on the boards of the Virginia Assoc. of Chiefs of Police, the Virginia Center for Policing Innovation, the Virginia Law Enforcement Professional Standards Commission, and chairs of the Thomas Jefferson Area Community Criminal Justice Board. Other professional affiliations include the Police Executive Research Forum and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

Chief Longo guided the Charlottesville Police Department through a transition from a traditional reactive force to a proactive problem-solving model. Under his leadership, the department has instituted a comprehensive strategic plan community policing throughout the organization, and has undertaken major initiatives to improve police effectiveness, transparency and accountability. Those include a sophisticated crime analysis software system, a monthly Compstat process, an intensive 8-week Citizens Police Academy, a community-wide gun violence project, a strict internal quality assurance process, advanced leadership training opportunities, and community partnerships for targeted problem-solving projects.

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Brian Maxey

Brian G. Maxey is a career law enforcement executive and attorney. He served as the Chief Operating Officer of the Seattle Police Department, focusing the department on exceeding the requirements of the federal consent decree with the Department of Justice and driving best business practices. Previously, he served as Senior Police Counsel, managing the legal affairs of the department with an emphasis on compliance with the consent decree. He also served as a Supervising Assistant City Attorney at the Seattle City Attorney's Office, as Assistant Corporation Counsel in the Special Federal Litigation Unit of the New York City Law Department, and as Assistant Attorney General in the Criminal Justice Division of the Washington State Attorney General's Office.

Previously, Brian worked in New York City for the Vera Institute of Justice and the Fund for Modern Courts.

Brian holds a J.D. from Fordham University, an M.P.A. in Policy from New York University, and a B.A. from Occidental College, and has completed the Senior Management Institute for Police. He is licensed to practice law in Washington and New York and is a Washington State Certified Peace Officer.

Tracey Meares

Tracey Meares is a professor of law at Yale University. Professor Meares has worked extensively with the federal government, having served on the Committee on Law and Justice, a National Research Council Standing Committee of the National Academy of Sciences from 2004–2011. Additionally, she has served on two National Research Council Review Committees: one to review research on police policy and practices, which produced the book, Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (2004, Skogan and Frydl, eds.) and another to review the National Institute of Justice, Strengthening the National Institute of Justice, (2010, Welford, Chemers and Schuck, eds). In November of 2010, Meares was named by Attorney General Eric Holder to sit on the Department of Justice’s newlycreated Science Advisory Board.

Sue Rahr

Sue Rahr joined the King County Sheriff’s Office as a deputy in 1979 and was elected Sheriff in 2005. She served as a member of the “Executive Session on Policing” at the Harvard Kennedy School. In April of 2012 she was appointed Executive Director of the Washington State Criminal Justice Training Commission. She is the architect of the cultural transformation of police training in Washington State described by the phrase “Moving from Warriors to Guardians.” This shift in philosophy moves away from the traditional ‘boot camp” model to a training strategy based on critical thinking and decision making.

Laurie Robinson

Laurie Robinson is the Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law and Society at George Mason University, a position she has held since 2012. She served as Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) in the U.S. Department of Justice from 2009 to 2012. From 1993 to 2000, she served her first term as the Assistant Attorney General for OJP. Ms. Robinson is a Senior Fellow at the George Mason University Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, and serves as co-chair of the Research Advisory Committee for the International Association of Chiefs of Police. She also serves on the Board of Trustees of the Vera Institute of Justice. Ms. Robinson received a B.A. from Brown University.

Ellen Scrivner

Police Foundation Executive Fellow Ellen Scrivner, PhD, has had a distinguished career characterized by a strong record in executive leadership devoted to advancing policing in America. She has held national criminal justice policy positions, both at the Federal and local levels, and has created innovative public safety initiatives responsive to pressing criminal justice needs. She is a recognized national expert on criminal justice policy, police behavior, and public safety and policing issues. In addition to significant Washington experience, she has held academic positions and also served on the Steering Committee for the Harvard Executive Sessions on Policing and Public Safety (2010- 2011). In 2010, she received the O.W. Wilson Award for Outstanding Contributions to Police Education, Research and Practice from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

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Annette Sikka

From 2002-2005 Professor Sikka was responsible for the police monitoring, training and assisting with the operational policy development in Kosovo for the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the United Nations. She developed a policy around first response and coordination for gender-based violence incidents. She was the police liaison for the Department of Justice and worked with the policing administration to make changes to the criminal procedure code affecting law enforcement and first responders. In 2008, Sikka worked as a law enforcment trainer in Iraq with the International Rescue Committee on gender-based violence for Kurdish police. Her work was recognized by the United States Department of State and in 2010 she was contracted to perform a thorough review of the Kurdistan policing and fire systems.

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George N. Turner

George N. Turner served as Atlanta’s 23rd Chief of Police from July 2010 to December 2016. As result of Chief Turner’s commitment to building and nurturing positive relationships with communities, the Atlanta Police Department was one of 15 law enforcement agencies in the nation to be recognized for implementing the 21st Century Policing methods.  He obtained a model city designation for his efforts to implement and follow the 59 recommendation set in place by President Barack Obama’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing.

Chief Turner has received numerous commendations and awards from the Secret Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation for his work on protective details with the various Presidents, other high-level officials and heads of state. He has also worked closely with the State of Georgia and other local law enforcement on a wide array of special assignments and details. Chief Turner was educated in the Atlanta Public Schools and attended Clark Atlanta University. He holds a Bachelors of Art degree from Saint Leo University in Criminal Justice and a Master’s in Public Administration from Columbus State University. He completed the United States Secret Service Academy, Small Detail Training, Police Executive Research Forum (Senior Management Institute) and Georgia Association of Chiefs of Police, Command College.

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Richard Van Houten

Richard Van Houten is the President of the Fort Worth Police Officers’ Association, first being elected to the position in January 2008. The Fort Worth Police Officers’ Association is the sole and exclusive bargaining agent for all sworn officers of the Fort Worth Police Department with an authorized strength of over 1500 officers protecting a community of almost 800,000 residents. He is a Sergeant with the Fort Worth Police department and has 23 years in law enforcement. He was a member of the National Institute of Justice and Harvard Kennedy School of Government Executive Session on Policing and Public Safety (2008-2014). He served on the Combined Law Enforcement Associations of Texas (CLEAT) Board of Directors and currently serves on the National Association of Police Organizations (NAPO) Board of Directors.